Glossary

Action (Verb) fluency test

a verbal fluency task that requires rapid generation of as many verbs as possible within one minute

ANI

HIV-associated asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. Can be defined as an acquired impairment in cognitive function that involves at least two ability domains and does not interfere with everyday functioning

CNS

central nervous system

CPE

central nervous system penetration effectiveness 

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

Cysique algorithm

a neurocognitive screening test for use in HIV-infected Caucasian men with advanced disease, which helps to identify patients at risk of HAND and gives guidance on which patients should be referred for cognitive screening, full neurological examination, or both

Delirium

sudden severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function that can occur with physical or mental illness

Dementia

a loss of brain function that may affect memory, cognition, language, judgement and behavior

Extrapyramidal side effects

adverse effects that can occur, for example, with the use of antipsychotic medications, and may include tremor, akathisia, bradyphrenia, bradykinesia, dystonia, slurred speech and muscular rigidity

Grooved pegboard

a dexterity test that requires complex visual-motor coordination

HAD

HIV-associated dementia. Can be defined as an acquired and marked impairment in cognitive functioning that involves at least two ability domains (typically multiple domains), and produces marked interference with day-to-day functioning

HAND

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Comprise a series of conditions that have progressively more severe patterns of CNS involvement

HCV

hepatitis C virus

HIV dementia motor scale

a 20-point scale that measures neurological function in five domains – strength, tone, reflexes, co-ordination and gait

International HIV dementia scale

a neurocognitive scale that comprises three tests: one of motor speed, one of psychomotor speed and one of memory

Macrophages

white phagocytic blood cells that are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity

Microglia

resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord 

MND

HIV-associated mild neurocognitive disorder. Can be defined as an acquired impairment in cognitive functioning that involves at least two ability domains and results in at least mild interference in daily functioning

Neurocognitive impairment

a reduction in the ability to think, concentrate, formulate ideas, reason and remember

Neuropathology

the study of diseases of the nervous system

Neuropsychological impairment

a reduction in the function of the brain resulting in changes in cognition and general psychological performance

Trail making test

a neurocognitive test in which the participant connects a series of numbers and/or letters as quickly as possible

WAIS-R

Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised digit symbol subtest. A neurocognitive test of memory and speed