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Guidelines

Coronary artery disease (CAD) in general population

For information on cardiovascular disease prevention please refer to the main Cardiovascular disease page of this website, where a downloadable document on prevention is available.


 

Key Publications

Reviews

  1. Baker JV, Lundgren JD. Cardiovascular implications from untreated human immunodeficiency virus infection. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:945–951.
  2. Grinspoon SK, Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, et al. State of the science conference: Initiative to decrease cardiovascular risk and increase quality of care for patients living with HIV/AIDS: executive summary. Circulation. 2008;118:198–210.
  3. Ho JE, Hsue PY. Cardiovascular manifestations of HIV infection. Heart. 2009;95:1193–1202.
  4. Passalaris JD, Sepkowitz KA, Glesby MJ. Coronary artery disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:787–797.
  5. Boccara F, Cohen A. Coronary artery disease and stroke in HIV-infected patients: prevention and pharmacological therapy. Adv Cardiol. 2003;40:163–184.
  6. Malvestutto CD, Aberg JA. Coronary heart disease in people infected with HIV. Cleve Clin J Med. 2010;77(8):547–556.
  7. Khunnawat C, Mukerji S, Havlichek D Jr, Touma R, Abela GS. Cardiovascular manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Am J Cardiol. 2008;102:635–642.
     

Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in HIV-infected patients

  1. Boccara F, Mary-Krause M, Teiger E, et al. Acute coronary syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: characteristics and 1 year prognosis. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:41–50.
  2. Hsue PY, Giri K, Erickson S, et al. Clinical features of acute coronary syndromes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Circulation. 2004;109:316–319.
  3. Ambrose JA, Gould RB, Kurian DC, et al. Frequency of and outcome of acute coronary syndromes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Cardiol. 2003;92:301–303.
  4. Matetzky S, Domingo M, Kar S, et al. Acute myocardial infarction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:457–460.
     

Prediction of CAD

  1. Kaplan RC, Kingsley LA, Sharrett AR, et al. Ten-year predicted coronary heart disease risk in HIV-infected men and women. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(8):1074–1081.
  2. Friis-Møller N, Thiébaut R, Reiss P, et al. Predicting the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients: the data collection on adverse effects of anti-HIV drugs study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010;17:491–501.
  3. Moreira Guimarães MM, Bartolomeu Greco D, Ingles Garces AH, et al. Coronary heart disease risk assessment in HIV-infected patients: a comparison of Framingham, PROCAM and SCORE risk assessment functions. Int J Clin Pract. 2010;64:739–745.
  4. Bucher HC, Rickenbach M, Young J, et al. Randomized trial of a computerized coronary heart disease risk assessment tool in HIV-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther. 2010;15:31–40.
  5. Rossi R, Nuzzo A, Guaraldi G, et al. The role of the Framingham risk score to predict the presence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in patients with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52:303–304.
  6. Hsue PY, Squires K, Bolger AF, et al. Screening and assessment of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected patients. Circulation. 2008;118:e41–47.
  7. Schambelan M, Wilson PW, Yarasheski KE, et al. Development of appropriate coronary heart disease risk prediction models in HIV-infected patients. Circulation. 2008;118:e48-53.
     

Atherosclerosis surrogate markers

  1. Grunfeld C, Delaney JA, Wanke C, et al. Preclinical atherosclerosis due to HIV infection: carotid intima-medial thickness measurements from the FRAM study. AIDS. 2009;23:1841–1849.
  2. Hulten E, Mitchell J, Scally J, Gibbs B, Villines TC. HIV positivity, protease inhibitor exposure and subclinical atherosclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Heart. 2009;95:1826–1835.
  3. Fitch KV, Lo J, Abbara S, et al. Increased coronary artery calcium score and noncalcified plaque among HIV-infected men: relationship to metabolic syndrome and cardiac risk parameters. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55:495–499.
  4. Lo J, Abbara S, Shturman L, et al. Increased prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis detected by coronary computed tomography angiography in HIV-infected men. AIDS. 2010;24:243–253.
  5. Guaraldi G, Stentarelli C, Zona S, et al. Lipodystrophy and anti-retroviral therapy as predictors of sub-clinical atherosclerosis in human immunodeficiency virus infected subjects. Atherosclerosis. 2010;208:222–227.
  6. Medina S, Wessman D, Krause D, Stepenosky J, Boswell G, Crum-Cianflone N. Coronary aging in HIV-infected patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:990–993.
  7. Guaraldi G, Zona S, Alexopoulos N, et al. Coronary aging in HIV-infected patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:1756–1762.
     

Risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI)

  1. Triant VA, Lee H, Hadigan C, Grinspoon SK. Increased acute myocardial infarction rates and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2506–2512.
  2. Boccara F. Cardiovascular complications and atherosclerotic manifestations in the HIV-infected population: type, incidence and associated risk factors. AIDS. 2008;22(Suppl 3):S19–26.
  3. Friis-Møller N, Weber R, Reiss P, et al; DAD study group. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients-association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study. AIDS. 2003;17:1179-1193.
  4. The Copenhagen HIV Programme (CHIP). Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D). Accessed 16 June 2011.