Signs and symptoms

Diabetes and impaired glucose homeostasis have been associated with the use of certain antiretrovirals (refer to the Causes section) but may be asymptomatic. Therefore rather than waiting for symptomatic disease to develop, people living with HIV should have fasting blood glucose assessed at HIV diagnosis, prior to starting antiretroviral therapy, and every 6–12 months during antiretroviral treatment.1

Find out about diagnostic criteria and details of recommended examinations during screening and following diagnosis of diabetes.

Symptoms of diabetes in the general population can include the following:

  • increased urinary frequency (polyuria)2,3
  • increased thirst (polydipsia)2,3
  • unexplained weight loss2,3
  • fatigue2
  • blurred vision2
  • increased hunger
  • Poor wound healing2 



  1. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS). Guidelines. Version 6.0. Accessed 3 July 2012. 
  2. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), NIH. National Diabetes Information Clearing House. Diagnosis of Diabetes. Accessed 25 February 2011. 
  3. Rodbard HW, Blonde L, Braithwaite SS, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus. Endocr Pract. 2007;13(Suppl 1):1–68.