Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors; drugs that inhibit the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by the ACE, preventing angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction, aldosterone secretion and sympathetic activation


angiotensin-II receptor blockers; drugs that prevent angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction, aldosterone secretion and sympathetic activation by receptor inhibition of the active molecule

Dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker

calcium channel blockers decrease intracellular calcium producing a reduction in muscle contraction and vasodilation


European Society of Hypertension and European Society of Cardiology


homeostasis model assessment

Hypertensive retinopathy

damage to the retina due to hypertension

Left ventricular hypertrophy

thickening of the myocardium of the left ventricle

Masked hypertension

see isolated ambulatory hypertension.


having small, but abnormal amounts of albumin in the urine

Pulse pressure

systolic minus diastolic arterial pressure. Abnormal pulse pressure may relate to reduction in arterial compliance

Renal parenchymal disease

disease affecting the tissue of the kidney

Resistant hypertension

failure to reach target blood pressure in patients adhering to full doses of an appropriate 3-drug, diuretic-containing anti-hypertensive regimen

Thiazide diuretic

pharmacological agent that increases urine output of the kidney by inhibiting the sodium-chloride transporter in the distal tubule. Thiazide-like diuretics (e.g. chlorthalidone and indapamide) have a similar action, but different chemical structure


United States Department of Health and Human Services