Possible Complications

Hypertension is a key modifiable cardiovascular (CV) risk factor1 and may be associated with target organ damage.2

Target organ damage and other related clinical conditions may include the following: 

  • left ventricular hypertrophy3,4
  • microalbuminuria2,4 
  • radiological or ultrasound evidence of arterial wall thickening4
  • retinopathy2–4
  • diabetes2,4
  • cerebrovascular disease: ischemic stroke, cerebral hemorrhage and transient ischemic attack2-4
  • cardiac disease: myocardial infarction, angina and congestive heart failure2–4
  • chronic kidney disease/renal impairment (elevated plasma creatinine or albuminuria)2–4
  • peripheral vascular disease2–4

Refer to the European Society of Hypertension and European Society of Cardiology (ESH/ESC) guidelines (2007) or the US Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS) JNC7 express report (2003) for more details. 



  1. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS). Guidelines. Version 6.0. Accessed 3 July 2012.
  2. The task force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:1462–1536.
  3. US Department of Health and Human Services. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. December 2003. Accessed 8 March 2011.
  4. World Health Organization, International Society of Hypertension Writing Group. 2003 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement on management of hypertension. J Hypertension. 2003;21:1983–1992.