Risk Factors

A number of risk factors have been associated with the development of hypogonadism in patients with HIV.

  • increasing age1,2
  • higher body mass index (BMI)1
  • duration of HIV infection2
  • opiate drug use.3,4


The following risk factors have been identified among the general population:5–7 

  • In males
    • Klinefelter's syndrome
    • chemotherapy or radiation treatment
    • undescended testicles
    • haemochromatosis
    • infections such as mumps
    • injury to the testicles
    • normal aging
  • In females
    • Turner syndrome
    • other genetic mutations
    • chemotherapy or radiation treatment
    • premature menopause
    • polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • In males or females
    • central nervous system disorders
    • pituitary or other types of brain tumors
    • congenital malformations
    • radiation treatment
    • head trauma
    • inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis
    • medications such as opiates
    • HIV/AIDS
    • obesity
       


The majority of available data on risk factors for hypogonadism relate to male patients and so there may be some knowledge gaps in females.
 

References

  1. Crum-Cianflone NF, Bavaro M, Hale B, et al. Erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism among men with HIV. AIDS Patient Care. STDS 2007;21:9–19.
  2. Moreno-Pérez O, Escoín C, Serna-Candel C, et al. The Determination of Total Testosterone and Free Testosterone (RIA) are not Applicable to the Evaluation of Gonadal Function in HIV-Infected Males. J Sex Med. 2010;7:2873–2883.
  3. Cooper OB, Brown TT, Dobs AS. Opiate drug use: a potential contributor to the endocrine and metabolic complications in human immunodeficiency virus disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:S132–S136.
  4. Crowe S, Hoy J, Mills J (eds). Management of the HIV-infected patient. Cambridge University Press. 26 April 1996. pp 196.
  5. Marin Urology. Hypogonadism. 2007. Accessed 2 September 2011.
  6. Dandona P, Rosenberg MT. A practical guide to male hypogonadism in the primary care setting. Int J Clin Pract. 2010;64:682–696.
  7. Skałba P, Guz M. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in women. Endokrynol Pol. 2011;62:560–567.