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Malignancies – Glossary


AIDS - Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.

ADC - AIDS-defining cancers (Kaposi´s Sarcoma, cervical cancer and Non-Hodgkin Lymphpoma.

Cancer - a broad group of diseases involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invading nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream.

Chemotherapy - the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs ("chemotherapeutic agents") as part of a standardized regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent or it may aim to prolong life or to palliate symptoms.

HAART - the use of multiple drugs that act on different viral targets, known as highly active antiretroviral therapy.

HIV - Human immunodeficiency virus, a lentivirus (slowly replicating retrovirus) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

NADC - Non-AIDS-defining cancers but associated to HIV (lung cancer, Hodgkin Lymphoma and anal cancer are the three most frequent NADCs).

Prevention - measures to prevent diseases or injuries rather than curing them or treating their symptoms.

Radiotherapy - the medical use of ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells. Radiation therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they are localized to one area of the body. It may also be used as part of adjuvant therapy, to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a primary malignant tumor.

RR - Relative risk, the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group.

Screening - a strategy used in a population to identify an unrecognized disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.