angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are a group of pharmaceutical agents used primarily in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
angiotensin receptor blockers are a group of pharmaceutical agents which modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
acute renal failure.
calcium channel blockers are a class of drugs and natural substances that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
chronic kidney disease.
estimated glomerular filtration rate is used to measure kidney function and is calculated in the laboratory from the level of creatinine in the blood. A normal eGFR is around 100ml/min in young adults.
end stage renal disease is severe kidney disease or chronic kidney failure that has reduced kidney function to 10 percent or less of normal, requiring the patient to have dialysis or a transplant in order to survive.
disorder of the kidney tubules in which certain substances normally reabsorbed into the bloodstream by the kidneys are released into the urine instead.
glomerular filtration rate.
inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney.
HIV-associated nephropathy refers to kidney disease developing in association with HIV infection.
modification of diet in renal disease-glomerular filtration rate. An equation that provides an estimate of GFR in patients with impaired renal function.
low blood pH that can be a complication of severe kidney disease.
inflammation of the kidney.
presence of kidney stones.
refers to damage to or diseases of the kidneys.
fluid accumulation in the lung tissue that can result from kidney failure, in which the body is unable to excrete fluid and leading to fluid build-up. In patients with advanced kidney disease dialysis may be required to remove excess body fluid.
urine albumin/creatinine ratio.
urine protein/creatinine ratio.