When to Refer

There are no specific recommendations in the EACS Guidelines, the American College of Chest Physicians Evidence Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition) or the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines about when to refer people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and thromboembolic disease.

In the absence of specific guidelines, patients should be treated according to existing national guidelines for thromboembolic disease, with consideration given to any potential drug-drug interactions. 

In particular, if PLWHIV present with Symptoms suggestive of thromboembolic disease, referral to a cardiovascular specialist is advisable.