Glossary

Goitre

swelling in all, or part of the thyroid gland

Hypothalamic hypothyroidism

hypothyroidism caused by hypothalamus failing to produce sufficient TRH to stimulate the pituitary gland to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Levothyroxine / L-thyroxine / synthetic T4/ 3,5,3’,5’-tetraiodo-L-thyronine

a synthetic form of thyroxine, used as a hormone replacement for patients with thyroid disease

Pituitary hypothyroidism

hypothyroidism caused by the pituitary gland creating insufficient TSH to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce enough thyroxine and triiodothyronine

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

a peptide hormone synthesised and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland, which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

a hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary

Thyroxine (T­4)

the major pro-hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland, and later metabolised to T3

Triiodothyronine (T3)

the major metabolically active thyroid hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. It affects almost every physiological process in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, body temperature and heart rate

TSH-receptor (TSHR)

a thyroid receptor that responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone and stimulates the production of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)