Glossary

Active TB

disease associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Active TB is usually pulmonary with symptoms including a productive cough, chest pain, fever and night sweats. Active TB disease can also be extrapulmonary.

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine

a vaccine against TB prepared from a strain of live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis.

CYP450 enzyme family

a family of enzymes involved in drug metabolism. The CYP3A4 enzyme, a member of the CYP450 family, metabolises many drugs, including Protease Inhibitors (PIs) and Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs).

Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB

TB caused by strains of M. tuberculosis that are resistant to at least isoniazid, rifampicin and fluoroquinolones and at least one of capreomycin, kanamycin or amikacin.
Hematuria: the presence of blood in the urine.

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)

a complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) that results from the rapid restoration of immune responses to pathogenic antigens. IRIS can manifest as the deterioration of an infection being treated, or the new presentation of a previously sub-clinical infection.

Intensified case-finding of TB (ICF)

the regular screening of PLWHIV or people in congregate settings for the symptoms of TB and prompt diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals.

Interferon-γ release assay (IGRA)

a test for an immune response that indicates exposure to M. tuberculosis. IGRAs do not detect M. tuberculosis and cannot distinguish between latent and active TB.

Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT)

isoniazid treatment for latent TB infection, or for individuals who have been exposed to an infected individual.

Latent TB

infection with M. tuberculosis that has not progressed to active TB.

Microscopic sputum smear test

microscopic examination of sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli; the primary method for diagnosing TB in most countries.

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB

TB caused by strains of M. tuberculosis that are resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin.

Mycobacterium africanum

a sub-species of the M. tuberculosis complex found in West Africa.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

the infectious bacterium that is the cause of TB.

Nocturia

the passage of urine at night.

Rifampicin resistant TB

TB caused by strains of M. tuberculosis that are resistant to rifampicin (95% of which will also be isoniazid resistant).

Tuberculin skin testing (TST)

a test for an immune response that indicates exposure to M. tuberculosis. TST does not detect M. tuberculosis and cannot distinguish between latent and active TB.

Xpert MTB/RIF test

an automated molecular test for identification of M. tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance.